A resolution, drafted by future U.S. president John Adams and adopted in Philadelphia, created the Continental Marines. The resolution stating that “two Battalions of Marines be raised” for service as landing forces for the recently formed Continental Navy.
That resolution was approved on November 10, 1775. Samuel Nicholas became captain and commanding officer of the newly formed Marines. He began recruiting by visiting public inns and taverns throughout Philadelphia. The first Marine landing on a hostile shore occurred when a force of Marines under Captain Samuel Nicholas captured New Province Island in the Bahamas from the British in March 1776.
After American independence was achieved in 1783, the Continental Navy was demobilized and its Marines disbanded. On July 11, President John Adams signed the bill establishing the U.S. Marine Corps as a permanent military force under the jurisdiction of the Department of Navy.